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The German army comprised that of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia , and the South German states drawn in under the secret clause of the preliminary peace of Nikolsburg, 26 July , [27] and formalised in the Treaty of Prague , 23 August Recruitment and organisation of the various armies were almost identical, and based on the concept of conscripting annual classes of men who then served in the regular regiments for a fixed term before being moved to the reserves.

This process gave a theoretical peace time strength of , and a wartime strength of about 1,, German tactics emphasised encirclement battles like Cannae and using artillery offensively whenever possible.

Rather than advancing in a column or line formation , Prussian infantry moved in small groups that were harder to target by artillery or French defensive fire.

The army was equipped with the Dreyse needle gun renowned for its use at the Battle of Königgrätz , which was by this time showing the age of its year-old design.

The Prussian army was unique in Europe for having the only such organisation in existence, whose purpose in peacetime was to prepare the overall war strategy, and in wartime to direct operational movement and organise logistics and communications.

Moltke embraced new technology, particularly the railroad and telegraph, to coordinate and accelerate mobilisation of large forces.

On 28 July Napoleon III left Paris for Metz and assumed command of the newly titled Army of the Rhine, some , strong and expected to grow as the French mobilization progressed.

A pre-war plan laid down by the late Marshal Niel called for a strong French offensive from Thionville towards Trier and into the Prussian Rhineland.

As Austria along with Bavaria, Württemberg and Baden were expected to join in a revenge war against Prussia, I Corps would invade the Bavarian Palatinate and proceed to "free" the four South German states in concert with Austro-Hungarian forces.

VI Corps would reinforce either army as needed. Unfortunately for Frossard's plan, the Prussian army mobilised far more rapidly than expected.

The Austro-Hungarians, still reeling after their defeat by Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War, were treading carefully before stating that they would only side with France if the south Germans viewed the French positively.

This did not materialize as the four South German states had come to Prussia's aid and were mobilizing their armies against France.

Napoleon III was under substantial domestic pressure to launch an offensive before the full might of Moltke's forces was mobilized and deployed.

Reconnaissance by Frossard's forces had identified only the Prussian 16th Infantry Division guarding the border town of Saarbrücken , right before the entire Army of the Rhine.

The Chassepot rifle proved its worth against the Dreyse rifle , with French riflemen regularly outdistancing their Prussian counterparts in the skirmishing around Saarbrücken.

However the Prussians resisted strongly, and the French suffered 86 casualties to the Prussian 83 casualties.

Saarbrücken also proved to be a major obstacle in terms of logistics. Only one railway there led to the German hinterland but could be easily defended by a single force, and the only river systems in the region ran along the border instead of inland.

Moltke had indeed massed three armies in the area—the Prussian First Army with 50, men, commanded by General Karl von Steinmetz opposite Saarlouis , the Prussian Second Army with , men commanded by Prince Friedrich Karl opposite the line Forbach - Spicheren , and the Prussian Third Army with , men commanded by Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm , poised to cross the border at Wissembourg.

General Frossard, without instructions, hastily withdrew his elements of the Army of the Rhine in Saarbrücken back across the river to Spicheren and Forbach.

This organization was due to a lack of supplies, forcing each division to seek out food and forage from the countryside and from the representatives of the army supply arm that was supposed to furnish them with provisions.

What made a bad situation much worse was the conduct of General Auguste-Alexandre Ducrot , commander of the 1st Division.

He told General Abel Douay , commander of the 2nd Division, on 1 August that "The information I have received makes me suppose that the enemy has no considerable forces very near his advance posts, and has no desire to take the offensive".

Even though Ducrot shrugged off the possibility of an attack by the Germans, MacMahon tried to warn his other three division commanders, without success.

The first action of the Franco-Prussian War took place on 4 August This battle saw the unsupported division of General Douay of I Corps, with some attached cavalry, which was posted to watch the border, attacked in overwhelming but uncoordinated fashion by the German 3rd Army.

During the day, elements of a Bavarian and two Prussian corps became engaged and were aided by Prussian artillery, which blasted holes in the city defenses.

Douay held a very strong position initially, thanks to the accurate long-range rapid fire of the Chassepot rifles, but his force was too thinly stretched to hold it.

Douay was killed in the late morning when a caisson of the divisional mitrailleuse battery exploded near him; the encirclement of the town by the Prussians then threatened the French avenue of retreat.

The fighting within the town had become extremely intense, becoming a door to door battle of survival. Despite an unceasing attack from Prussian infantry, the soldiers of the 2nd Division kept to their positions.

The people of the town of Wissembourg finally surrendered to the Germans. The French troops who did not surrender retreated westward, leaving behind 1, dead and wounded and another 1, prisoners and all of their remaining ammunition.

The German cavalry then failed to pursue the French and lost touch with them. The attackers had an initial superiority of numbers, a broad deployment which made envelopment highly likely but the effectiveness of French Chassepot rifle-fire inflicted costly repulses on infantry attacks, until the French infantry had been extensively bombarded by the Prussian artillery.

The Battle of Spicheren, on 5 August, was the second of three critical French defeats. Moltke had originally planned to keep Bazaine's army on the Saar River until he could attack it with the 2nd Army in front and the 1st Army on its left flank, while the 3rd Army closed towards the rear.

The aging General von Steinmetz made an overzealous, unplanned move, leading the 1st Army south from his position on the Moselle.

He moved straight toward the town of Spicheren, cutting off Prince Frederick Charles from his forward cavalry units in the process.

On the French side, planning after the disaster at Wissembourg had become essential. However, planning for the next encounter was more based upon the reality of unfolding events rather than emotion or pride, as Intendant General Wolff told him and his staff that supply beyond the Saar would be impossible.

Therefore, the armies of France would take up a defensive position that would protect against every possible attack point, but also left the armies unable to support each other.

A patrol from the German 2nd Army under Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia spotted decoy fires close and Frossard's army farther off on a distant plateau south of the town of Spicheren, and took this as a sign of Frossard's retreat.

The French were unaware of German numerical superiority at the beginning of the battle as the German 2nd Army did not attack all at once.

Treating the oncoming attacks as merely skirmishes, Frossard did not request additional support from other units. By the time he realized what kind of a force he was opposing, it was too late.

Seriously flawed communications between Frossard and those in reserve under Bazaine slowed down so much that by the time the reserves received orders to move out to Spicheren, German soldiers from the 1st and 2nd armies had charged up the heights.

Instead of continuing to defend the heights, by the close of battle after dusk he retreated to the south.

The German casualties were relatively high due to the advance and the effectiveness of the Chassepot rifle. They were quite startled in the morning when they had found out that their efforts were not in vain—Frossard had abandoned his position on the heights.

The Crown Prince of Prussia's 3rd army had, on the quick reaction of his Chief of Staff General von Blumenthal, drawn reinforcements which brought its strength up to , troops.

The French had been slowly reinforced and their force numbered only 35, Although badly outnumbered, the French defended their position just outside Fröschwiller.

By afternoon, the Germans had suffered c. The Germans captured Fröschwiller which sat on a hilltop in the centre of the French line.

Having lost any hope for victory and facing a massacre, the French army disengaged and retreated in a westerly direction towards Bitche and Saverne, hoping to join French forces on the other side of the Vosges mountains.

The German 3rd army did not pursue the French but remained in Alsace and moved slowly south, attacking and destroying the French garrisons in the vicinity.

About , French soldiers were besieged in the fortress of Metz following the defeats on the frontier. Despite odds of four to one, the III Corps launched a risky attack.

Once blocked from retreat, the French in the fortress of Metz had no choice but to engage in a fight that would see the last major cavalry engagement in Western Europe.

The battle soon erupted, and III Corps was shattered by incessant cavalry charges , losing over half its soldiers. The German Official History recorded 15, casualties and French casualties of 13, men.

On 16 August, the French had a chance to sweep away the key Prussian defense, and to escape. Two Prussian corps had attacked the French advance guard, thinking that it was the rearguard of the retreat of the French Army of the Meuse.

Despite this misjudgment the two Prussian corps held the entire French army for the whole day. The French had lost the opportunity to win a decisive victory.

The Battle of Gravelotte, or Gravelotte—St. Privat 18 August , was the largest battle during the Franco-Prussian War.

It was fought about 6 miles 9. The combined German forces, under Field Marshal Count Helmuth von Moltke, were the Prussian First and Second Armies of the North German Confederation numbering about infantry battalions, cavalry squadrons, and heavy cannons totaling , officers and men.

On 18 August, the battle began when at Moltke ordered the First and Second Armies to advance against the French positions. The French were dug in with trenches and rifle pits with their artillery and their mitrailleuses in concealed positions.

Privat and was pinned down by French fire from rifle pits and trenches. The fighting died down at The next morning the French Army of the Rhine retreated to Metz where they were besieged and forced to surrender two months later.

A grand total of 20, German troops were killed, wounded or missing in action during the August 18 battle.

The French losses were 7, killed and wounded along with 4, prisoners of war half of them were wounded for a total of 12, The Prussians, under the command of Field Marshal Count Helmuth von Moltke, took advantage of this maneuver to catch the French in a pincer grip.

After a sharp fight in which they lost 5, men and 40 cannons, the French withdrew toward Sedan. Napoleon III ordered the army to break out of the encirclement immediately.

But by , Prussian artillery took a toll on the French while more Prussian troops arrived on the battlefield. The French cavalry, commanded by General Margueritte , launched three desperate attacks on the nearby village of Floing where the Prussian XI Corps was concentrated.

Margueritte was killed leading the very first charge and the two additional charges led to nothing but heavy losses. By the end of the day, with no hope of breaking out, Napoleon III called off the attacks.

The French lost over 17, men, killed or wounded, with 21, captured. The Prussians reported their losses at 2, killed, 5, wounded and captured or missing.

By the next day, on 2 September, Napoleon III surrendered and was taken prisoner with , of his soldiers. It was an overwhelming victory for the Prussians, for they not only captured an entire French army, but the leader of France as well.

The defeat of the French at Sedan had decided the war in Prussia's favour. One French army was now immobilised and besieged in the city of Metz, and no other forces stood on French ground to prevent a German invasion.

Nevertheless, the war would continue. Bismarck wanted an early peace but had difficulty in finding a legitimate French authority with which to negotiate.

The Germans expected to negotiate an end to the war but while the republican government was amenable to war reparations or ceding colonial territories in Africa or in South East Asia to Prussia, Favre on behalf of the Government of National Defense, declared on 6 September that France would not "yield an inch of its territory nor a stone of its fortresses".

As the bulk of the remaining French armies were digging-in near Paris, the German leaders decided to put pressure upon the enemy by attacking Paris.

By September 15, German troops reached the outskirts of Paris and Moltke issued the orders for an investment of the city. On September 19, the Germans surrounded it and erected a blockade, as already established at Metz, completing the encirclement on 20 September.

In return for an armistice for the French to elect a National Assembly, Bismarck demanded the surrender of Strasbourg and the fortress city of Toul.

To allow supplies into Paris, one of the perimeter forts had to be handed over. Favre was unaware that the real aim of Bismarck in making such extortionate demands was to establish a durable peace on the new western frontier of Germany, preferably by a peace with a friendly government, on terms acceptable to French public opinion.

An impregnable military frontier was an inferior alternative to him, favoured only by the militant nationalists on the German side.

When the war had begun, European public opinion heavily favoured the Germans; many Italians attempted to sign up as volunteers at the Prussian embassy in Florence and a Prussian diplomat visited Giuseppe Garibaldi in Caprera.

Bismarck's demand that France surrender sovereignty over Alsace caused a dramatic shift in that sentiment in Italy, which was best exemplified by the reaction of Garibaldi soon after the revolution in Paris, who told the Movimento of Genoa on 7 September that "Yesterday I said to you: war to the death to Bonaparte.

Today I say to you: rescue the French Republic by every means. Prussian forces commenced the Siege of Paris on 19 September Faced with the blockade, the new French government called for the establishment of several large armies in the French provinces.

These new bodies of troops were to march towards Paris and attack the Germans there from various directions at the same time.

Armed French civilians were to create a guerilla force—the so-called Francs-tireurs —for the purpose of attacking German supply lines.

These developments prompted calls from the German public for a bombardment of the city. Von Blumenthal, who commanded the siege, was opposed to the bombardment on moral grounds.

In this he was backed by other senior military figures such as the Crown Prince and Moltke.

Rumors about an alleged German "extermination" plan infuriated the French and strengthened their support of the new regime.

Within a few weeks, five new armies totalling more than , troops were recruited. The Germans dispatched some of their troops to the French provinces to detect, attack and disperse the new French armies before they could become a menace.

The Germans were not prepared for an occupation of the whole of France. At first, the Germans were victorious but the French drew reinforcements and defeated a Bavarian force at the Battle of Coulmiers on 9 November.

After the surrender of Metz , more than , well-trained and experienced German troops joined the German 'Southern Army'.

Quentin 13 January. Despite access to the armaments factories of Lille , the Army of the North suffered from severe supply difficulties, which depressed morale.

In January , Gambetta forced Faidherbe to march his army beyond the fortresses and engage the Prussians in open battle.

The army was severely weakened by low morale, supply problems, the terrible winter weather and low troop quality, whilst general Faidherbe was unable to command due to his poor health, the result of decades of campaigning in West Africa.

At the Battle of St. Quentin, the Army of the North suffered a crushing defeat and was scattered, releasing thousands of Prussian soldiers to be relocated to the East.

Following the destruction of the French Army of the Loire, remnants of the Loire army gathered in eastern France to form the Army of the East, commanded by general Charles-Denis Bourbaki.

In a final attempt to cut the German supply lines in northeast France, Bourbaki's army marched north to attack the Prussian siege of Belfort and relieve the defenders.

In the battle of the Lisaine , Bourbaki's men failed to break through German lines commanded by General August von Werder. Facing annihilation, the last intact French army crossed the border and was disarmed and interned by the neutral Swiss near Pontarlier 1 February.

With Paris starving, and Gambetta's provincial armies reeling from one disaster after another, French foreign minister Favre went to Versailles on 24 January to discuss peace terms with Bismarck.

Bismarck agreed to end the siege and allow food convoys to immediately enter Paris including trains carrying millions of German army rations , on condition that the Government of National Defence surrender several key fortresses outside Paris to the Prussians.

Without the forts, the French Army would no longer be able to defend Paris. Although public opinion in Paris was strongly against any form of surrender or concession to the Prussians, the Government realised that it could not hold the city for much longer, and that Gambetta's provincial armies would probably never break through to relieve Paris.

President Trochu resigned on 25 January and was replaced by Favre, who signed the surrender two days later at Versailles, with the armistice coming into effect at midnight.

Several sources claim that in his carriage on the way back to Paris, Favre broke into tears, and collapsed into his daughter's arms as the guns around Paris fell silent at midnight.

Furious, he refused to surrender. Jules Simon , a member of the Government arrived from Paris by train on 1 February to negotiate with Gambetta.

Another group of three ministers arrived in Bordeaux on 5 February and the following day Gambetta stepped down and surrendered control of the provincial armies to the Government of National Defence, which promptly ordered a cease-fire across France.

When the war began, the French government ordered a blockade of the North German coasts, which the small North German Federal Navy with only five ironclads and various minor vessels could do little to oppose.

By the time engine repairs had been completed, the French fleet had already departed. Reservists that were supposed to be at the ready in case of war, were working in the Newfoundland fisheries or in Scotland.

Only part of the ship French Navy put to sea on 24 July. A blockade of Wilhelmshaven failed and conflicting orders about operations in the Baltic Sea or a return to France, made the French naval efforts futile.

Spotting a blockade-runner became unwelcome because of the question du charbon ; pursuit of Prussian ships quickly depleted the coal reserves of the French ships.

To relieve pressure from the expected German attack into Alsace-Lorraine, Napoleon III and the French high command planned a seaborne invasion of northern Germany as soon as war began.

The French expected the invasion to divert German troops and to encourage Denmark to join in the war, with its 50,strong army and the Royal Danish Navy.

The French Navy lacked the heavy guns to engage the coastal defences and the topography of the Prussian coast made a seaborne invasion of northern Germany impossible.

A shortage of officers, following the capture of most of the professional French army at the Siege of Metz and at the Battle of Sedan, led naval officers to be sent from their ships to command hastily assembled reservists of the Garde Mobile.

The rest of the navy retired to ports along the English Channel and remained in port for the rest of the war. The quick German victory over the French stunned neutral observers, many of whom had expected a French victory and most of whom had expected a long war.

The strategic advantages which the Germans had were not appreciated outside Germany until after hostilities had ceased.

Other countries quickly discerned the advantages given to the Germans by their military system, and adopted many of their innovations, particularly the General Staff, universal conscription, and highly detailed mobilization systems.

The Prussian General Staff developed by Moltke proved to be extremely effective, in contrast to the traditional French school. This was in large part because the Prussian General Staff was created to study previous Prussian operations and learn to avoid mistakes.

The structure also greatly strengthened Moltke's ability to control large formations spread out over significant distances.

This disorganization hampered the French commanders' ability to exercise control of their forces.

In addition, the Prussian military education system was superior to the French model; Prussian staff officers were trained to exhibit initiative and independent thinking.

Indeed, this was Moltke's expectation. According to the military historian Dallas Irvine, the system "was almost completely effective in excluding the army's brain power from the staff and high command.

To the resulting lack of intelligence at the top can be ascribed all the inexcusable defects of French military policy.

Albrecht von Roon , the Prussian Minister of War from to , put into effect a series of reforms of the Prussian military system in the s.

Among these were two major reforms that substantially increased the military power of Germany. The first was a reorganization of the army that integrated the regular army and the Landwehr reserves.

At the start of the Franco-Prussian War, , German soldiers concentrated on the French frontier while only , French soldiers could be moved to face them, the French army having lost , stragglers before a shot was fired, through poor planning and administration.

Each Prussian Corps was based within a Kreis literally "circle" around the chief city in an area.

Reservists rarely lived more than a day's travel from their regiment's depot. By contrast, French regiments generally served far from their depots, which in turn were not in the areas of France from which their soldiers were drawn.

Reservists often faced several days' journey to report to their depots, and then another long journey to join their regiments.

Large numbers of reservists choked railway stations, vainly seeking rations and orders. The effect of these differences was accentuated by the peacetime preparations.

The Prussian General Staff had drawn up minutely detailed mobilization plans using the railway system, which in turn had been partly laid out in response to recommendations of a Railway Section within the General Staff.

The French railway system, with competing companies, had developed purely from commercial pressures and many journeys to the front in Alsace and Lorraine involved long diversions and frequent changes between trains.

There was no system of military control of the railways and officers simply commandeered trains as they saw fit.

Rail sidings and marshalling yards became choked with loaded wagons, with nobody responsible for unloading them or directing them to the destination.

Although Austria-Hungary and Denmark had both wished to avenge their recent military defeats against Prussia, they chose not to intervene in the war due to a lack of confidence in the French.

Napoleon III also failed to cultivate alliances with the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom , partially due to the diplomatic efforts of the Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck, and thus faced the German states alone.

Worse still, once the small number of soldiers who had been trained how to use the new weapon became casualties, there were no replacements who knew how to operate the mitrailleuse.

The French were equipped with bronze, rifled muzzle-loading artillery, while the Prussians used new steel breech-loading guns, which had a far longer range and a faster rate of fire.

The Prussian guns typically opened fire at a range of 2—3 kilometres 1. The Prussian batteries could thus destroy French artillery with impunity, before being moved forward to directly support infantry attacks.

The events of the Franco-Prussian War had great influence on military thinking over the next forty years. Lessons drawn from the war included the need for a general staff system, the scale and duration of future wars and the tactical use of artillery and cavalry.

The bold use of artillery by the Prussians, to silence French guns at long range and then to directly support infantry attacks at close range, proved to be superior to the defensive doctrine employed by French gunners.

The Prussian tactics were adopted by European armies by , exemplified in the French 75 , an artillery piece optimised to provide direct fire support to advancing infantry.

Most European armies ignored the evidence of the Russo-Japanese War of — which suggested that infantry armed with new smokeless-powder rifles could engage gun crews effectively.

This forced gunners to fire at longer range using indirect fire , usually from a position of cover. The attack was a costly success and came to be known as "von Bredow's Death Ride", but which nevertheless was held to prove that cavalry charges could still prevail on the battlefield.

Use of traditional cavalry on the battlefields of proved to be disastrous, due to accurate, long-range rifle fire, machine-guns and artillery.

The Germans deployed a total of 33, officers and 1,, men into France, of which they lost 1, officers and 16, enlisted men killed in action.

Another officers and 10, men died of their wounds, for total battle deaths of 28, Disease killed officers and 11, men, with typhoid accounting for 6, Among the missing and captured were officers and 10, men.

The wounded amounted to 3, officers and 86, men. French battle deaths were 77,, of which 41, were killed in action and 36, died of wounds.

More than 45, died of sickness. Total deaths were ,, with , being suffered by the army and 2, by the navy. The wounded totaled ,; , for the army and 6, for the navy.

French prisoners of war numbered , In addition, 90, French soldiers were interned in Switzerland and 6, in Belgium.

The Prussian Army, under the terms of the armistice, held a brief victory parade in Paris on 17 February; the city was silent and draped with black and the Germans quickly withdrew.

Bismarck honoured the armistice, by allowing train loads of food into Paris and withdrawing Prussian forces to the east of the city, prior to a full withdrawal once France agreed to pay a five billion franc war indemnity.

An exodus occurred from Paris as some , people, predominantly middle-class, went to the countryside. During the war, the Paris National Guard , particularly in the working-class neighbourhoods of Paris, had become highly politicised and units elected officers; many refused to wear uniforms or obey commands from the national government.

National guard units tried to seize power in Paris on 31 October and 22 January On 18 March , when the regular army tried to remove cannons from an artillery park on Montmartre , National Guard units resisted and killed two army generals.

The national government and regular army forces retreated to Versailles and a revolutionary government was proclaimed in Paris.

A commune was elected, which was dominated by socialists, anarchists and revolutionaries. The red flag replaced the French tricolour and a civil war began between the Commune and the regular army, which attacked and recaptured Paris from 21—28 May in the Semaine Sanglante bloody week.

During the fighting, the Communards killed around people, including Georges Darboy , the Archbishop of Paris , and burned down many government buildings, including the Tuileries Palace and the Hotel de Ville.

Forced labour for life was imposed on people, 1, people were transported to "a fortified place" and 3, people were transported.

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Cover Media. Pourquoi il ne faut pas acheter de baguette de pain blanche? The quick German victory over the French stunned neutral observers, many of whom had expected a French victory and most of whom had expected a long war.

The strategic advantages which the Germans had were not appreciated outside Germany until after hostilities had ceased.

Other countries quickly discerned the advantages given to the Germans by their military system, and adopted many of their innovations, particularly the General Staff, universal conscription, and highly detailed mobilization systems.

The Prussian General Staff developed by Moltke proved to be extremely effective, in contrast to the traditional French school. This was in large part because the Prussian General Staff was created to study previous Prussian operations and learn to avoid mistakes.

The structure also greatly strengthened Moltke's ability to control large formations spread out over significant distances.

This disorganization hampered the French commanders' ability to exercise control of their forces. In addition, the Prussian military education system was superior to the French model; Prussian staff officers were trained to exhibit initiative and independent thinking.

Indeed, this was Moltke's expectation. According to the military historian Dallas Irvine, the system "was almost completely effective in excluding the army's brain power from the staff and high command.

To the resulting lack of intelligence at the top can be ascribed all the inexcusable defects of French military policy.

Albrecht von Roon , the Prussian Minister of War from to , put into effect a series of reforms of the Prussian military system in the s.

Among these were two major reforms that substantially increased the military power of Germany. The first was a reorganization of the army that integrated the regular army and the Landwehr reserves.

At the start of the Franco-Prussian War, , German soldiers concentrated on the French frontier while only , French soldiers could be moved to face them, the French army having lost , stragglers before a shot was fired, through poor planning and administration.

Each Prussian Corps was based within a Kreis literally "circle" around the chief city in an area. Reservists rarely lived more than a day's travel from their regiment's depot.

By contrast, French regiments generally served far from their depots, which in turn were not in the areas of France from which their soldiers were drawn.

Reservists often faced several days' journey to report to their depots, and then another long journey to join their regiments.

Large numbers of reservists choked railway stations, vainly seeking rations and orders. The effect of these differences was accentuated by the peacetime preparations.

The Prussian General Staff had drawn up minutely detailed mobilization plans using the railway system, which in turn had been partly laid out in response to recommendations of a Railway Section within the General Staff.

The French railway system, with competing companies, had developed purely from commercial pressures and many journeys to the front in Alsace and Lorraine involved long diversions and frequent changes between trains.

There was no system of military control of the railways and officers simply commandeered trains as they saw fit. Rail sidings and marshalling yards became choked with loaded wagons, with nobody responsible for unloading them or directing them to the destination.

Although Austria-Hungary and Denmark had both wished to avenge their recent military defeats against Prussia, they chose not to intervene in the war due to a lack of confidence in the French.

Napoleon III also failed to cultivate alliances with the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom , partially due to the diplomatic efforts of the Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck, and thus faced the German states alone.

Worse still, once the small number of soldiers who had been trained how to use the new weapon became casualties, there were no replacements who knew how to operate the mitrailleuse.

The French were equipped with bronze, rifled muzzle-loading artillery, while the Prussians used new steel breech-loading guns, which had a far longer range and a faster rate of fire.

The Prussian guns typically opened fire at a range of 2—3 kilometres 1. The Prussian batteries could thus destroy French artillery with impunity, before being moved forward to directly support infantry attacks.

The events of the Franco-Prussian War had great influence on military thinking over the next forty years.

Lessons drawn from the war included the need for a general staff system, the scale and duration of future wars and the tactical use of artillery and cavalry.

The bold use of artillery by the Prussians, to silence French guns at long range and then to directly support infantry attacks at close range, proved to be superior to the defensive doctrine employed by French gunners.

The Prussian tactics were adopted by European armies by , exemplified in the French 75 , an artillery piece optimised to provide direct fire support to advancing infantry.

Most European armies ignored the evidence of the Russo-Japanese War of — which suggested that infantry armed with new smokeless-powder rifles could engage gun crews effectively.

This forced gunners to fire at longer range using indirect fire , usually from a position of cover. The attack was a costly success and came to be known as "von Bredow's Death Ride", but which nevertheless was held to prove that cavalry charges could still prevail on the battlefield.

Use of traditional cavalry on the battlefields of proved to be disastrous, due to accurate, long-range rifle fire, machine-guns and artillery.

The Germans deployed a total of 33, officers and 1,, men into France, of which they lost 1, officers and 16, enlisted men killed in action.

Another officers and 10, men died of their wounds, for total battle deaths of 28, Disease killed officers and 11, men, with typhoid accounting for 6, Among the missing and captured were officers and 10, men.

The wounded amounted to 3, officers and 86, men. French battle deaths were 77,, of which 41, were killed in action and 36, died of wounds.

More than 45, died of sickness. Total deaths were ,, with , being suffered by the army and 2, by the navy. The wounded totaled ,; , for the army and 6, for the navy.

French prisoners of war numbered , In addition, 90, French soldiers were interned in Switzerland and 6, in Belgium. The Prussian Army, under the terms of the armistice, held a brief victory parade in Paris on 17 February; the city was silent and draped with black and the Germans quickly withdrew.

Bismarck honoured the armistice, by allowing train loads of food into Paris and withdrawing Prussian forces to the east of the city, prior to a full withdrawal once France agreed to pay a five billion franc war indemnity.

An exodus occurred from Paris as some , people, predominantly middle-class, went to the countryside. During the war, the Paris National Guard , particularly in the working-class neighbourhoods of Paris, had become highly politicised and units elected officers; many refused to wear uniforms or obey commands from the national government.

National guard units tried to seize power in Paris on 31 October and 22 January On 18 March , when the regular army tried to remove cannons from an artillery park on Montmartre , National Guard units resisted and killed two army generals.

The national government and regular army forces retreated to Versailles and a revolutionary government was proclaimed in Paris. A commune was elected, which was dominated by socialists, anarchists and revolutionaries.

The red flag replaced the French tricolour and a civil war began between the Commune and the regular army, which attacked and recaptured Paris from 21—28 May in the Semaine Sanglante bloody week.

During the fighting, the Communards killed around people, including Georges Darboy , the Archbishop of Paris , and burned down many government buildings, including the Tuileries Palace and the Hotel de Ville.

Forced labour for life was imposed on people, 1, people were transported to "a fortified place" and 3, people were transported.

About 20, Communards were held in prison hulks until released in and a great many Communards fled abroad to Britain, Switzerland, Belgium or the United States.

The survivors were amnestied by a bill introduced by Gambetta in and allowed to return. The creation of a unified German Empire aside from Austria greatly disturbed the balance of power that had been created with the Congress of Vienna after the end of the Napoleonic Wars.

Germany had established itself as a major power in continental Europe, boasting the most powerful and professional army in the world.

The defeat in the Franco-Prussian War led to the birth of Revanchism literally, "revenge-ism" in France, characterised by a deep sense of bitterness, hatred and demand for revenge against Germany.

This was particularly manifested in the desire for another war with Germany in order to reclaim Alsace and Lorraine. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

France and Prussia. Franco-Prussian War. Quentin Pontarlier Belgian reaction Paris Commune. Main article: Causes of the Franco-Prussian War.

For the organization of the two armies at the beginning of the war, see Franco-Prussian War order of battle. Main article: Battle of Wissembourg Main article: Battle of Spicheren.

Main article: Battle of Wörth. Main article: Battle of Mars-La-Tour. This section does not cite any sources.

Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Main article: Battle of Gravelotte. Main article: Siege of Metz Main article: Battle of Sedan. Main article: Siege of Paris — Main article: Armistice of Versailles.

See also: Paris Commune. Further information: Unification of Germany. A further , officers and men were mobilized and stayed in Germany..

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